Aria: Italian for ‘air’, an aria is the major vocal piece where one singer expresses feelings and showcases the voice. Called a “static” moment in the scene, an aria freezes the action of the plot to focus on the emotion or thought.
Duet: An aria composed for two. Two singers express their feelings to each other or to the audience.
Libretto: Italian for ‘little book,’ a libretto refers to the script of an opera, written by the librettist. There is much debate over which is written for which: libretto for the music, or vice versa!
Recitative: Speech-singing, where the singer semi-chants the words in rhythm of free speech. Recitative is used to further the plot (“kinetic”) or set up an aria and can be seen as a precursor to hip hop music and spoken word poetry.
Singspiel: A German term, a singspiel is a highly theatrical opera involving fantasy and has spoken dialogue between arias.
Chorus: A group of singers who perform the vital role of providing support to the principle singers. The chorus sets the scene and creates the mood for an opera, much like the way a Greek chorus furthers the plot and propels the action. It is composed of all voice ranges.
Voice Categories and Types
Bass: The lowest of the male voices.
Basso Buffo: Italian for “buffoon bass”, who plays comic roles.
Baritone: A middle-range male voice.
Castrati: Castrati flourished during the period 1650-1750 singing both male and female roles in the soprano range. Their popularity was due to the strength and flexibility of their voices.
Coloratura Soprano: Singer with the highest range of notes.
Contralto: The lowest range of the female voice, rich voice quality. Mezzo and Contralto singers are almost interchangeable, and for this reason we almost never hear of contraltos.
Countertenor: A male alto who trains his falsetto voice rather than the lower range. Countertenors specialize in parts originally written for castrati.
Haute Contre: The “high tenor” usually sings higher than the other tenor roles.
Helden Tenor: Literally a “heroic tenor” with a strong voice and great stamina.
Mezzo-Soprano: A middle-range female voice.
Soprano: Singer with a high range of notes. Lyric sopranos are light in quality while dramatic sopranos have a full rich tone.
Tenor: Has the highest range of notes of the male voices.
Corps de ballet: A group of dancers in a ballet company separate from soloists and principals.
Renaissance Dance: Renaissance dance was the first dance style to be recorded. The High Renaissance dates from approximately 1400 to 1600 although none of these periods can be pinned down to exact dates. Renaissance social dancing varied from lively group dances such as the Branle, to stately court dances such as the Pavane. Theatrical dances were often versions of social dances with complex patterns. The dances of the Commedia dell’Arte were very acrobatic in contrast to the court ballets.
Baroque Dance: The Baroque period 17th and 18th centuries developed both theatrical and court choreographic styles greatly due to the Academy of Dancing established during the 1660’s at the behest of Louis XIV. Many Baroque dances have come down to us through dance notation. The vocabulary of steps is huge and far more virtuosic than in earlier periods.
Early Ballet: Early ballet began to evolve out of Baroque toward the end of the 18th century. It shares many aesthetic principles with the Baroque but is also an attempt to reflect Greek and Roman antiquity due to the discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Romantic Ballet: Romantic ballet (approximately 1830 – 1860) was a revolutionary change in aesthetic with story ballets and a change from Greek myths to European fairy tales as subject matter.
Classical Ballet: Classical ballet came after the Romantic and is characterized by brilliant virtuosic technique, the short tutu, and the predominance of the ballerina.
Pas de deux: A dance for two.